Teacher strike in Peru

Teacher strike in Peru

Teacher strike in Peru has been going for months. Better salaries, better working conditions and training; that is what they have been asking for, while their students have been left without proper education for more than 50 days.

The strike has reached its peak with thousands of teachers (about 10,000) marching on Lima and even fighting violently against police forces. They are demanding the Minister of Education and the President more funds for the Education sector as long as the revisions of the evaluation system that should be put in place shortly.

The salary raise is at the centre of the strike with teachers demanding to be paid at least 2,000 soles, the equivalent of about US$ 600, which was indeed an electoral promise by the actual president PPK.

Now, another issue, which, I believe, goes beyond money is the question of teachers training and the evaluation of teachers. Teachers are now to be evaluated through formal observation in their classroom. So far, so good. If teachers provide a service, this service has to be evaluated. What worries me deeply as a teacher trainer is the process and the way this evaluation can be used as a tool to dismiss teachers and consequently devaluate some schools. Here are my questions and doubts:

  • Who will be in charge of the evaluation? How will have the person in charge been trained to do deliver such observations?
  • If a teacher fails to pass the evaluation, that means somehow that he/she has not received proper training beforehand. Why is that?
  • Will the evaluation be the same everywhere or adapted to the learning context? With some classes with 40 students, how can a teacher possibly ensure that each and every student reaches his/her true potential? How can a teacher maintain adequate behaviour management with the huge classes they often are confronted to? Can you reasonably assess teachers in rural areas and those in urban areas the same way?

These are just thoughts I am jotting down, but having seen the chaos poorly organized evaluations can create, I must admit that would highly recommend the Minister of Education of Peru to rethink its plan on the long run and actually train teachers before these observations take place.

Peru has been through Education crisis for years: Just as a reminder education in Peru is only ranking 64/70 for PISA results this year.  However, it is not debatable that Peru wants to move forward: The University laws have come up recently and they are pushing teachers to get Master’s degrees by 2019 to be able to teach at University level. It has also been mentioned that 18% of the budget would be allocated to Education in 2018. That’s all good but still the budget of education represents less that 6% of Peru PBI and I am wondering how the salary increase for all teachers and the new reforms can fit in that budget.

So, again even if there is definitely an urge to deeply modify the Education System in Peru I believe they should take time to carefully think these reforms, to make sure that they actually improve education through valid teacher training and peer observations and that they are not just ticking boxes and putting a band-aid on a crisis.

And YOU what do you think about teacher strike in Peru…

Education in Africa: Where it stands and the upcoming challenges

Education in Africa: Where it stands and the upcoming challenges

With now some of the world’s fastest growing economies and half of its population being under the age of 15, the African continent is emerging as a potential pool of future talents.

Angela Merkel’s speech at the June’s G20 showed the lead for a change in the relations with Africa. Africa shouldn’t be seen as a topic we talk about but Africa should be considered a continent we talk with. And that makes a big difference. Merkel insisted as well on the role of education in Africa saying that if we fail to invest in young people, in their education, then global development can’t occur. “If we don’t give young people any prospects, if we don’t invest in education and qualifications, if we don’t strengthen the role of girls and young women, the development agenda won’t succeed.”

Long seen as a continent solely depending on help from other countries, the African continent is now taking charge of its future and it is now considered as a trade-based continent and a significant player in new technologies. All eyes are turned towards the oldest continent.

So how about Education in Africa?

1.The Millennium Development goals

The Millennium Development goals, a set of goals to achieve by 2015 that was adopted in 2000 by the United Nations drew the lines of the expectations for the Education in Africa. Some of these goals focused on the importance of children to be fully enrolled in primary school regardless of their gender. The MDGs then led the way to the Sustainable Development goals for 2030 to ensure among others an inclusive and equitable quality education offering lifelong learning opportunities for everyone.

2.The state of Education today

Some reports such as the AAI, State of Education in Africa report 2015 show that the African continent is moving towards improvement and that there is an increased interest from the states to invest in a better education for everyone. Among the positive news, the number of student enrolments has increased dramatically especially in primary schools. Between 1990 and 2012, the number of children enrolled in primary schools more than doubled, from 62 million to 149 million children. This great achievement was partly due to the abolition of school fees in sub-Saharan Africa. Likewise, Higher Education has seen its enrollment figures double between 2000 and 2010, increasing from 2.3 million to 5.2 million.

Public spending on education has also improved in most African countries. African countries have allocated the largest share of government expenditure to education at 18.4 percent, followed by East Asia and the Pacific at 17.5 percent. So, the willingness for improved education in Africa is definitely present.

3.Challenges to face

Now there are, however, some challenges to be faced like the shortage of high-skilled talents, the difficult access to secondary schools, the low-quality of education with untrained teachers, the lack of infrastructures and instructional materials, the still-unbalanced access to education for girls. These are important challenges, that’s a fact. Nonetheless they have to be counterbalanced by the willingness to close the education gaps in Africa. Nothing will happen by magic and the last 15 years have seen important changes despite internal challenges that have affected Africa, among which, armed conflicts, the legacy of colonialism-which has contributed to the teaching of second languages in place of proper literacy in own mother tongue and the high rate of emigration leading to a huge loss of African talents and skilled workers.

4.Moving forward

Africa is betting on education and training to move forward and so are global associations and institutions. As an example, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative made a multi-million dollar investment in a start-up called Andela in Kenya that trains African software developers. The initiatives to push African education forward are plenty and here are the key points to consider for further improvements in African Education:

  • Investing in teachers’ training and improve the salary of teachers to retain them in the education sector
  • Investing in material and infrastructures that promote good teaching-learning
  • Promote girls’ education to reduce the education disparity linked to gender
  • Implementing high quality teaching not only is cities but also in isolated areas
  • Developing a sustainable economy to avoid students from dropping out of school to support their families
  • Understanding the needs in economy to close the gap between skills of graduates and the market demands
  • Developing technical and vocational education
  • Creating long-term partnerships between public and private sectors to boost education budgets

5.Education Associations and institutions

Africa has seen the emergence and growth of associations and institutions whose purpose is to help education. Among which we can mention:

  1. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development(NEPAD)
  2. The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality
  3. The African Children’s Educational Trust(A-CET)
  4. Benin Education Fund (BEF)

There is undoubtedly a long way ahead but the widespread use of modern technology, the growth in investment and the impact of African leaders and teachers like Kakenya Ntaiya will certainly play a major and rapid role in the development of Education in Africa.

Jody Williams: The life of an activist.

Jody Williams: The life of an activist.

The Hay Festival taking place in Arequipa has brought a wave of political awareness with the invitation of the Nobel Peace Prize winner Jody Williams well-known for her tireless fight for women’s rights and antipersonal landmines since the 80s. The interview led by Clara Elvira Ospina drew the lines of a life dedicated to fighting injustice.

Born in Vermont in a family of five children in the United-Stated in the 50s Jody Williams wasn’t predestined to lead a life in activism. But she did. Why? Because she had to. Because she couldn’t live in the world as it was. It had to change. Her first fight as an activist was during the March against Vietnam in 1970. She was barely 20. After graduating in the 70s she didn’t have a clear idea about what to do with her life. She got some jobs in Mexico as a teacher and the real trigger for her full-time involvement in activism was the war in El Salvador. She had gullibly believed that after the Vietnam war the US government would stop intervening in external affairs. She was wrong. That’s how it all started. As she claimed: anybody can start as an activist simply because they want to. The drive is that you want to try to change the world. Climate change, wars, education. The type of fight you pick is not what matters. What matters is truly believing into what you are fighting for. Anyone with strong feelings and emotions about a particular topic can be an activist as long as you know how to manage your emotions. If you can put all your emotions into a small box then you can be efficient. Things can change if people get together. She didn’t change things alone, as she said, she got joined by thousands of people and organisations with the same goal: Stopping war atrocities.

When it comes to talking about people who inspired her she takes the examples of women in armed conflicts who stand up for their rights. William’s modesty is humbling. “Quien soy yo?” Who am I? I don’t know if I would be able to do what they do. These women are capable of changing the world simply because the want to and they have to.

Women’s rights has been at the heart of William’s fight and the recent elections of Donald Trump in the US is a source of deep concern for her. “Who can vote for a person like that knowing nothing about internal affairs or external politics? Who can vote for someone who treated women and even his own daughter as he did during the campaign?” When Clara Elvira Ospina asked her if she thought the US would be worse in terms of racism and discrimination, her answer was a resounding yes.

However, as she says she is a pessimist with optimism believing that if people decide to change the world together, they can. Hope is possible if we all decide that silence and indifference are inacceptable. We all have our part of responsibility in the world but it is up to each and every one of us to stand up to fight for what is right and fair.

Ahmed Ben Tahar Galai : Taking a stand for refugees and human rights

Ahmed Ben Tahar Galai : Taking a stand for refugees and human rights


“Hay Festival: Imagine the world.” Hard to do so when Aylan Kurdi’s body stands on the 1st slide of Ahmed Ben Tahar Galai’s presentation. We all know that horrible picture that went viral showing the body of this poor little Kurdish boy lying on the Turkish beach.

Ahmed Ben Tahar, vice-president of the League of Human Rights in Tunisia that received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2015 has made his point: What is happening in Europe is NOT acceptable. People are fleeing from their countries and many of them are risking their lives such as Aylan Kurdi who didn’t make it alive. He was just 3 years old. Europe cried the death of that boy. How about the lives of others? There are hundreds of thousands of migrants attempting to cross the Mediterranean Sea. Ten thousand of them dead. Imagine a whole city disappearing. That’s what it is. So, yes Europe cried, the whole world cried looking at these pictures and then what?

As Ahmed Ben Tahar Galai said migration is a natural historical process. People leave their country to find love, to flee wars, to get a better life. Migration fluctuations have always existed and they have brought their fair deal of financial benefits to the hosting countries relieving pressure on labour markets. Migration has also been at the origins of positive fusions between cultures. The mixing of cultures has brought new knowledge and has allowed people to learn from one another.

However, this is not how we see immigration now in most countries. Immigration has to be stopped at all cost. Trump who has been recently elected President of the US has claimed to be willing to build a wall to detain migration from Mexico and to a wider extent to South America. In Europe a “shameful agreement”, as mentioned Ahmed Ben Tahar Galai, has been voted between rich European countries and Turkey so that Turkey detains the migrants on its soil.

The fact is migration cannot be stopped. Migrants would still try to cross borders, they would rather try to cross and die rather than stay in their own countries. Europe that is said to be the the cradle of Human Rights has failed its engagement. It has failed its people. It has failed its promises. Europe is crying “crocodile tears.”

Despite Ahmed Ben Tahar Galai’s presentation pessimistic overview of the way refugees and migrants are treated worldwide, his optimism in brighter days is contagious.

You cannot fight for Human Rights and be pessimistic, can you? So instead of portraying solely a bad vision of the migration crisis he offers solutions that should be brought to light :

  1. Working on the causes of migration i.e. helping the internal economy of countries in wars or developing countries.
  2. Sharing the wealth of the world and fighting poverty.
  3. Developing fair trade
  4. Reducing the debt of poor countries
  5. Helping people develop sustainable ways of living
  6. Changing priorities and incrementing the budget for health and education
  7. Helping people live in dignity
  8. Taking responsibility for our actions

There is a long way before reaching this goal but how about we start we the last one first? Taking responsibility for our actions and trying to be more human and ethical?

PISA results, International Meeting for Higher Education. What’s the next step for Peru?

PISA results, International Meeting for Higher Education. What’s the next step for Peru?

PISA results, International Meeting for Higher Education. What’s the next step for Peru?

In the light of the PISA results from the OECD that have just come up today it is worth putting in parallel the relevant questions that were raised yesterday at the International Meeting for Higher Education (2nd Encuentro Internacional de Education Universitaria Superior) that is currently held in Arequipa, Peru.


This year Peru is ranking 64/70 (62/70 countries for reading and 63/70 for maths.) OK, not great. Can do better. Still there is some improvement in comparison to the previous years and that is what I would like to focus on in this article.


This time I was not part of the speakers but just a curious observer of the deep change that Peru is experiencing in terms of education and in terms of strategies to implement change.


The focus of the conference yesterday was about the quality of teaching and its assessment. How can we ensure that Peru delivers a high quality of teaching that would be competitive with the rest of the world? What are the challenges faced by the country and the opportunities that are offered?


Maria José Lemaitre del Campo (Directora Ejecutiva del Centro Interuniversitario de Desarollo, Chile) raised some valid questions related to the evaluation of the quality of teaching in Peru. Should education be considered a social right or a consumer good? In other words should the government take some –financial- role in education or should it be left to the private sector? Do we focus on selection or massification of the Higher Education? How do we integrate MOOCs and other technologies in education? How do we deal with globalisation with students who can’t easily get out of the country?


Peru is at a crucial point in its History in Education. Political and Education actors should work hand in hand to build (the word “contruir” was used a lot yesterday) a solid Education recognised on a national level and possibly on an international level.


However, this does not mean that Peru should blindy copy what is done in other countries. Niclas Jonsson, Consejero de Educacion y Ciencia de la Embajada de Australia con sede en Brasilia mentioned some interesting points about Australia’s Education (PISA Ranking Australia 14/70) and he also said something quite right: “The Education in Australia is good but far from being perfect. Peru should take what is good about it, leave the bad parts and ADAPT the good parts to its own context.”


Totally right. Every country should be aiming at implementing the best education system possible. However, the mistake many countries make when they want to improve on their education system is that they take ideas and concepts from other successful countries without applying the necessary critical thinking to implement these ideas.

Education takes time and THINKING.


Now here are some of the questions to open up the debate about the implementation of policies regarding the evaluation of teaching quality in Peru:


  1. If Peru is looking towards implementing a National regulator defining National Standards for Quality, who will be part of it? Foreigners having the experience of these standards but little knowledge about the Peruvian context? Peruvian teachers who know their country but have little insight of international standards? Both?
  2. The implementation of National regulators and standards have raised some concerns in some countries as they have been synonyms for more paperwork and pressure on teachers which was detrimental to the teaching-learning time. How will Peru avoid the trap of paperwork and standardisation to increment a real improvement in learning?
  3. We are at a time of globalisation and English is key. The vision of the Peruvian government is to form bilingual students by 2021. Many teachers don’t have the skills or knowledge to teach English. Will the focus be on hiring foreign teachers or training teachers here in Peru so that they can be in charge of the education of their own country?


The debate is open…

Education is starving

Education is starving

Why do you teach ? Me, because I am starving

When I deliver speeches I am often asked these 2 questions:

Why have you decided to teach abroad and deliver conferences?

I heard there was good food for free in that conference!

My easy answer is: I heard there was good food for free in that conference! An easy answer to deride a hungry audience. It has always worked for me.
Well, of course you don’t leave your own country whose gastronomy is well renowned just for food but as I said earlier that’s just an easy answer to a complicated question.

If I had the time to say why I am losing sleepless nights preparing work for the development of teachers, here’s what I would say.
Because I have to. Because children deserve it. Because the right to education is a fundamental right for everyone. No matter who you are, no matter how much money you have, no matter the colour of your skin, no matter your age, no matter your gender, no matter if you are an atheist or believe in God. Education is an inalienable right. The right to be given the tools to grow as a citizen of the world.

Let me tell you a personal story :          

Reading was devouring and I was thirty for learning

I have always wanted to work in education as a teacher. Very creative, right? Anyway. I was a good student but also a trouble maker because I needed food to nurture my brain. Reading was devouring and I was thirty for learning. I got lucky because some of my teachers spotted that they gave me just enough to sustain my appetite. After my Master’s degree I still wanted more. I got Learning Greedy. More.more.more. However I don’t come from a rich family nor am I poor. Just the typical middle class family where parents sacrifice everything they have to give their children a chance through education. So I worked hard and knocked on the right doors. At the time getting a Postgraduate Certificate in Education along with a Master’s degree in teaching languages was partly funded by the English state in agreement with the European institutions. I could never be grateful enough to have receive such an opportunity to develop my skills as a teacher and simply as a person learning in Oxford one of the most prestigious universities in the world. I would not be here today if I hadn’t been given this opportunity.


Unfortunately, nowadays education is a privilege. Today more than ever. I have travelled to many countries delivering speeches to prestigious institutions in Europe to talk about the great use of technology in education and the risks of technology if badly used while developing at the same time teachers’ skills in rural schools in Peru where teachers have little if no access to the Internet. Paradoxical, right?

My point here is that education is a right but it is also a duty we need to contribute to. We have to feed empty bellies and empty minds starving. Education shouldn’t suffer from compromise, Education should be a priority for each and every one of us if we want the world to turn round and if we want it to be a better place.
So, yes why do I deliver conferences abroad? Because I know what it feels like to be hungry for knowledge.